According to Chaza"l, there are 6000 years of human history in parallel to the 6 days of Creation. The 6 days in Creation had a purpose, to continue perfection in to the first Shabbat. This did not happen, due to the sin of Adam HaRishon. Therefore, as a tikkun, there are 6000 years of human history as a preparation for the Great Second Chance. See the Ramban on Breishit 2:3 for an in depth explanation of this idea, including parallels for each of the days with each of the different millenia.
As I have said before, Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer says that an hour of Hashem's day is taking 1000 years and dividing it by 12, with the end result being 83.333 years per hour. Kol HaTor brings a different division, taking 1000 years and dividing it by 24, with the end result being 41.666 years per hour. Both are words of the Living G-d. For the 83.333 years, all 1000 years have acts of creation. For the 41.666 years, it is only the second 500 years of the millenium have acts of creation.
There are three places that I am aware of that refer to the events of this first and most fateful Sixth Day.
- Sanhedrin 38B
- Vayikra Rabba 29:1
- Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer chapter 11
Pirkei D'Rebbi Eliezer and the Bavli Sanhedrin have nearly identical orders (the differences come in the last few hours of the day).
It is worthy to note that the 5th hour, according to both of them, that Adam HaRishon stood up on his legs.
- First Hour (5500 - 5541.666) - The dust was brought together
- Second Hour (5541.666-5583.333) - It was made into a Golem (a lifeless shape, a shell)
- Third Hour (5583.333 - 5625) - The limbs were stretched out
- Fourth Hour (5625 - 5666.666) - A soul was thrown in to him
- Fifth Hour (5666.666 - 5708.333) - He stood up on his legs.
From this we can see very clearly, Adam HaRishon of the 6th day of Creation is Am Yisrael in the 6th millenium, who, with 600,000 souls, stood up during the fifth hour, culminating in 5708.